Gorobets C., Prokopenko J.A. Belgorod State National Research University (Russia, Belgorod)
Аннотация В данной статье была проверена гипотеза о существовании связи между нарциссическими чертами личности и уровнем лидерских способностей, а именно: у испытуемых с низким уровнем выраженности лидерских способностей преобладает такая черта нарциссической личности, как "Потребность в постоянном внимании и восхищении", а на высоком уровне доминирует такой показатель, как "Эксплуатация в межличностных отношениях".
Ключевые слова: лидерские способности, нарциссические черты, нарциссизм, лидер, лидерство, студенты, способности, личность.
Keywords: leadership abilities, narcissistic traits, narcissism, leader, leadership, students, ability, personality.
The relevance of the study is due to the fact that, thanks to the analysis of the relationship between leadership abilities and narcissistic personality traits of students, it is possible to give practical recommendations for the correction and prevention of both the level of leadership qualities and certain narcissistic traits. The student period is a favorable period for the formation of the leadership abilities of the individual, which contributes to the improvement of physical and mental health and the successful realization of oneself as a full-fledged member of society. Leadership is considered to be leadership, a special ability to influence both individuals and groups, directing all their volitional efforts, initiative to achieve certain personal or group goals. Analysis and interpretation of the data makes it possible to identify the level of leadership abilities: low, at which the quality of the leader is weakly expressed in the personality, medium, high or extremely high level, at which the personality shows the traits of a dictator.
Narcissistic personality traits, being at a normal or slightly overestimated level, but without crossing the line of pathology, allow the individual to realize their potential to a greater extent, support the desire for success, achievements, and social recognition. In addition, these traits provide a person with greater satisfaction with their lives, because narcissistic individuals tend to have lower levels of depression, loneliness, social phobia, neurasthenia and, in general, have more mental health than people with low levels of narcissism. This is the positive effect of narcissism. The negative influence is that the narcissistic person can become hostage to his own grandeur, setting himself more and more ambitious and less realistic goals. So, taking into account the above, the study of narcissistic personality traits and leadership qualities is necessary, since the presence of certain narcissistic traits together with an average or high level of leadership abilities, performing protective and social functions, determines the adaptation of the personality, being a regulator of his behavior and activities, contributes to the formation of a harmonious and a healthy personality, which determines the relevance of the chosen topic.
Leadership and leadership abilities of a person were studied by such researchers as: E.V. Andrienko examined the processes of leadership and leadership in the framework of social psychology , E. Erickson and his psychology and psychoanalysis of power .
Foreign authors paid more attention to the study of narcissism. The founder of the theory of narcissism is Z. Freud, who touched upon this problem in many of his works . Based on his work, E. Fromm put forward his understanding of the phenomenon of narcissism: in his research he pays special attention to negative narcissism, studies the individual and group manifestations of narcissism . K. Horney in her works described narcissism as one of the directions of neuroses .
Nevertheless, the question of the relationship between leadership abilities and narcissistic personality traits remains open, which served as the basis for the choice of the research topic. A literature review showed that scientists pay more attention to the study of separately aspects of leadership and aspects of narcissistic personality traits, while the influence of these factors on each other has not been sufficiently studied, which also determines the relevance of this work.
Research problem: what is the relationship between leadership abilities and narcissistic personality traits of self-attitude?
Purpose of the research: to study the relationship between leadership abilities and narcissistic personality traits.
Research object: levels of leadership abilities.
Subject of research: the relationship between leadership abilities and narcissistic personality traits.
Research hypothesis: there is a connection between narcissistic personality traits with different levels of leadership abilities, namely: in subjects with a low level of expression of leadership abilities, such a trait of a narcissistic personality as "The need for constant attention and admiration" prevails, and at a high level, this indicator dominates, as "Exploitation in interpersonal relationships."
Research methods. To solve the set tasks and test the hypothesis, a set of complementary methods was used: theoretical (analysis, comparison and generalization of psychological literature on the research problem), empirical (psychodiagnostic methods), data processing methods (quantitative and qualitative analysis). Statistical data processing was carried out using the H-Kruskall-Wallis test to identify statistical differences in the hypothesis of the study and the nonparametric method of Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Mathematical data processing was carried out using the SPSS-23 statistical analysis computer program.
Research methods: questionnaire "Narcissistic personality traits" (NCHL; OA Shamshikova, NM Klepikova); Leadership Ability Test Questionnaire (R.S. Nemov). Base and sample of the study. The research was carried out on the basis of the Pedagogical Institute of the National Research University "BelGU" in Belgorod. The study involved 60 students (26 girls, 34 boys) aged 19 to 23 years.
The conducted theoretical analysis of the literature showed that the problem of the relationship between leadership abilities and narcissistic personality traits is one of the most difficult in psychology, still not resolved, despite the numerous studies of domestic and foreign psychologists. It is known that scientists pay more attention to the study of separately aspects of leadership and aspects of narcissistic personality traits, while the influence of these factors on each other has not been sufficiently studied, which also determines the relevance of this work.
The analysis of the level of leadership abilities showed that the average leadership ability dominates in the sample as a whole. This suggests that such subjects directly strive to occupy places of honor, deserve respect in front of friends, relatives or significant people, and are also ready to take direct part in various events that require decisiveness and responsibility from them. They have a strong position, show patience, and define the line of concessions and compromises that they must not cross. The study of narcissistic personality traits revealed the dominance of the scales "Lack of empathy", "Manipulation in interpersonal relationships", "Absorption in fantasies". This suggests that such subjects are not able to recognize the feelings and emotions of those around them. With such a characteristic of narcissistic personality traits, subjects most often use unrealistic fantasies in the case when some situation threatens their "I".
In the course of the correlation analysis, a connection was revealed between narcissistic personality traits and different levels of leadership abilities. So, for a low level of leadership abilities, the scale "The need for constant attention and admiration" is characteristic. The average level of expressiveness of leadership abilities is characterized by the indicator "Belief in their own uniqueness", which indicates that when the goal is achieved, the subjects initially believed that they would succeed, and at a high level, the scales "Expectation of a favorable attitude towards oneself" and "Operation in interpersonal relationships ".
Thus, the hypothesis of the study, namely: there is a connection between narcissistic personality traits with different levels of leadership abilities, namely: in subjects with a low level of expression of leadership abilities, such a trait of a narcissistic personality as "The need for constant attention and admiration" prevails, and the highest level is dominated by such an indicator as "Exploitation in interpersonal relationships" is confirmed in the study.
- Andriyenko. E.V. (2000). Sotsialnaya psikhologiya // / E.V. Andreyenko // uchebnoye posobiye dlya studentov vysshikh pedagogicheskikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. – M.: «Akademiya» – 264 s.
- Freyd. Z. Vvedeniye v nartsissizm [Elektronnyy resurs]. – URL: https://royallib.com/read/freyd_zigmund/o_nartsizme.html#0 (data obrashcheniya 30.11.2020).
- Fromm. E. (2014). Dusha cheloveka: revolyutsiya nadezhdy / E. Fromm // Novaya filosofiya. – M.: AST – 352 s.
- Khorni. K. (2006). Nevroticheskaya lichnost nashego vremeni: samoanaliz / K. Khorni. – M.: Ayris-Press – 464 s.
- Erikson. E. (1999). / Psikhologiya i psikhoanaliz vlasti : khrestomatiya // E. Erikson. – g. Samara: Bakhram-M – S. 449-480.