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Система Выготского



Only the zone of proximal development (ZPD) can be fruitful and beneficial area of school and pre-school training or work for a psychologist and psychotherapist if they work with a child or a teenager.  ZPD – it's what the child (teenager) hasn’t embraced yet, but is quite able of doing that in joint work with adults (parents, psychologists or teachers). Education in the ZPD (developmentally appropriate) is an essential way of reaching the full (entire) potential of your child. It’s also a way of helping him (scaffolding learning). The zone of proximal development is the basic concept of Vygotsky’s theory of learning and development, which he didn’t finish completely and explicitely. But his accomplished theory can be traced in his works. And this research reveales it in the practically applicable form. The methods to build up this theory are borrowed from Vygotrsky. He could have done that exactly the same way. The outcomes are published in this book, which also indicated that the theory has a direct relevance to the development psychology data and suggests a new look at the training and development methods researches (including new methods of modeling).

The study found that Vygotsky distinguished between the individual ZPD of a particular child (teenager) and the age ZPD of children (teenagers) at the same level of development. As opposed to the individual ZPD, the age ZPD can be used to solve general issues (problems) of psychology and pedagogy. That includes the designing of efficient school innovations (innovation schools) and reforms in the educational system, the new standards, tests, curriculum, textbooks and teaching aids. Each age ZPD contains a certain part of culture (cultural context of child development), including specific training (education) stage with its content and methods. Each age ZPD of a child or an adolescent is displayed by a certain psychological peculiarity in his behavior (all of them are mentioned in the book). The listing of age ZPDs covers completely the training and normal development of a child from birth to 18 years. Directly the system of the ZPD application can bring us to resolutions of the most efficient methods in the work of a psychologist or a teacher with children or teenagers in the specific age. The best educational content can be identified for children to get it easier and better, and with greater interest. Some good examples of using of age ZPD manifest in ideas of successful innovations for school. We consider here the most important psychological signs of infant’s readiness for school and the transition from elementary school to the next stage of education: they are the signs of specific age ZPD.

This work can be useful for experts in the domain of developmental psychology, sociocultural (cultural-historical) psychology, history of psychology, educational psychology, coaching, research and practical pedagogy,  developmental education, Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), home schooling, early childhood development and education. And for employees of innovation educational content and methods institutions, the authors (developers) of innovative schools and educational reforms (innovations), new standards and programs, tests, textbooks and teaching materials, methods and techniques. For creative teachers, psychologists, coaches, psychotherapists working with children or teenagers. For designers of psychologists and psychotherapists methods of work with children or teenagers. For teachers of psychology (professors, lecturers) and gifted undergraduate and graduate students. And for highly educated parents.

The book is published in Russian. The date-line in English: Kasvinov S.G. (2013). L.S. Vygotsky’s system. Book 1. Teaching/learning and development of children and teenagers. – Kharkov (Ukraine): Rider. Contact author: Kasvinov S.G. <> (where "app" – is  Association of Professional Psychologists, Kharkov).